Madrasah Al Hikmah

Student's corner

From Chisht to Deoband

A glimpse of the four silsilah; Chishti, Suhrawardi, Naqshbandi and Qadiri.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD... 

PART 1: BEFORE CHISHT.. 

  1. Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasallam.. 
  2. Khulafa’ Rasyidun (Rightly Guided Caliphs) 

                 - Sayyidina Abu Bakar as Siddiq radiyallahu ‘anhu. 

                 - Sayyidina Umar al Faruk radiyallahu ‘anhu. 

                 - Sayyidina Uthman al Ghani radiyallahu ‘anhu.

                 - Sayyidina Ali al Murtadha radiyallahu ‘anhu.

  1. Hasan Basri rah.a. 
  2. Abdul Wahid bin Zaid, Abu Ubaidah Al Basri rah.a. 
  3. Fudhail bin ‘Iyad rah.a. 
  4. Ibrahim bin Adham, Abu Ishaq al Balkhi rah.a. 
  5. Hudzaifah bin Qatadah al Mar’ashi rah.a. 
  6. (Abu) Hubairah Basri rah.a. 

                  - Mimshadz ad Dinawari rah.a through Junaid rah.a. 

  1. Mimshadz ad Dinawari rah.a. 

PART2: Chishtiyyah IN CHISHT.. 

  1. Abu Ishaq Shami rah.a. 
  2. Sayyid Abu Ahmad Abdaal Chishti rah.a. 
  3. Abu Muhammad bin Abu Ahmad Chishti rah.a. 
  4. Sayyid Abu Yusuf Chishti rah.a. 
  5. Qutubuddin Maudud Chishti rah.a. 
  6. Haji Sharif az-Zindani rah.a. 
  7. Uthman Haruni Chishti rah.a. 

Part 3: Early Chishtiyyah in India.. 

  1. Mu’inuddin Hasan as Sijzi al Ajmeri rah.a. 
  2. Sheikh Qutbud Din Bakhtiar al Ka’ki rah.a. 
  3. Fariduddin Mas’ud Ganj Shakar rah.a. 
  4. Ala’uddin Ali bin Ahmad as Sabir al Kalyari rah.a. 

                   - Suhbah (Accompanying pious people) 

  1. Shamsuddin at Turkmani al Paani Patti rah.a. 
  2. Jalaluddin Kabirul Awliya Paani Patti rah.a. 
  3. Ahmad Abdul Haq al Faruqi ar Ruduulwi rah.a. 
  4. Aarif (Ahmad) al Faruqi ar Ruduulwi rah.a. 
  5. Muhammad bin Arif (Ahmad) ar Ruduulwi rah.a. 

Part4: Meeting Suhrawardiyyah... 

  1. Abdul Quddus al Gangohi rah.a. 

                    - Tawhidul Matlab. 

  1. Sheikh Jalaluddin al Faruqi at Thanesri rah.a. 
  2. Nizamuddin al Balkhi al Thanesri rah.a. 
  3. Abu Sa’id al Gangohi rah.a. 
  4. Khwajah Muhibullah al I’laahabaadi rah.a. 
  5. Sheikh Muhammadi bin Isa al Hargaami rah.a. 

                    - Muhammad Makki rah.a. 

  1. Muhammad bin al Hamid al Amrohwi rah.a. 
  2. Sheikh Abdul Hadi al Amrohwi as Siddiqi rah.a. 
  3. Sheikh Abdul Bari al Amrohwi as Siddiqi rah.a. 

Part 5: Arriving at Deoband... 

  1. Sayyid Abdur Rahim Wilaayati as Saharanpuri rah.a. 

                    - The Battle of Balakot 

  1. Sheikh Nur Muhammad al Jhinjhaanawi rah.a. 

                     - The approach of Shah Waliullah.

                     - Silsilah Qadiri and Naqshbandi through Waliullah. 

  1. Haji Imdaadullah Muhaajir Makki rah.a. 

                      - The establishment of Darul Ulum Deoband. 

  1. Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi rah.a. 
  2. Maulana Abrarul Haqq rah.a. 

                       - Bai’ah (Pledge of allegiance) 

  1. Maulana Hakim Muhammed Akhtar rah.a. 

                       - Sama’ (Listening to poetry) 

  1. Maulana Abdul Hamid Ishaq - hafizahullah. 

Works Cited... 

 

 

 

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

FOREWORD

This is an introduction to the elders of the Chishtiyyah, a famous Sufi order in the Indian subcontinent. We divide it into five chapters.

  1. Before Chisht
  2. Chishtiyyah in Chisht
  3. Early Chishtiyyah in India
  4. Meeting Suhrawardiyyah
  5. Arriving at Deoband

The biographies are mainly from Mashaikh-e-Chisht by Maulana Zakariyya rahmatullah alaih wherein he cited from Persian sources. Second oft-quoted source is Nuzhatul Khawatir of Abdul Hayy al Lakhnawi. Biographies of elders from the time of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam until Mimshadz ad Dinawari can generally be found in Arabic references. We also mention the names of the elders of other three silsilah to elucidate their relationship with the Chisti silsilah.

Through the barakah of their deeds and status, it is hoped that we also be granted piety, mercy, and the forgiveness of Allah ta’ala, Ameen.

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PART 1: BEFORE CHISHT

1.     Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasallam

Whatever is in the heavens and the earth proves the Glory of Allah, the Sovereign, the Pure King, All-Mighty and Most Wise. He has sent to the unlettered nation a messenger among themselves. The Rasul recites to them His Verses, purifies their souls, and teaches them the Book and Wisdom. Indeed, they had been in a manifest error before. (Surah Jumu’ah 1-2)

Consequently, through revelation that was sent, astonishing miracles, amazing characters, sacrifices, blood and weeping, Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam has introduced us to Ar Rahmaan, The Great Lord who has no equal, the Unique who has no ally, the One and Real Beloved.

Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam conveyed the message, fulfilled the trust, and wished well for the ummah until he met Allah ta’ala in the 11th year of hijrah. He left his ummah on a very clear path, its night as bright as day. May he be graced with virtue and the promised praiseworthy station.

In the 23 years being with his ummah, Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam had prepared group of people whom Allah ta’ala was very pleased. They tirelessly continued this honorable mission of conveying the message, reciting the verses, purifying souls and teaching the contents of the Qur’an and Sunnah. 

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2.     Khulafa’ Rasyidun (Rightly Guided Caliphs)

Sayyidina Abu Bakar as Siddiq radiyallahu ‘anhu

By firm consensus of Sahabah, the companions of Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam with whom Allah ta’ala is pleased, Abu Bakr radhiyallahu ‘anhu was appointed as khalifah to lead the ummah in pursue of this great mission. Why not? After all, he is the most eligible to lead them in their worldly affairs as Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam himself has appointed him to be their Imaam (leader) in their affairs of akhiraah.

As long as he was alive, Abu Bakr radhiyallahu ‘anhu did not allow any deficiency to come in Deen. Even though the majority was not on his side, he did not budge even a bit from the command of Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam. The Sahabah, having been trained by Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam with the mold of Islam, obeyed the decision of the khalifah to send armies against the Romans and the apostates. His firm iman coupled with the obedience of the Sahaabah has certainly invited the pleasure and assistance of Allah ta’ala.

His asceticism and fear for Allah ta’ala is incomparable. His love and sacrifice for the sake of Allah ta’ala and His Rasul has no equal. After more than 2 years of commanding good and prohibiting evil with genuine faith, he left this temporary world at the age of 63 in the city of Madinah where he rests next to his beloved companion, Nabi Muhammad sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam. 

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Sayyidina Umar al Faruk radiyallahu ‘anhu

Umar bin al Khattab radhiyallahu ‘anhu became khalifah through appointment by Abu Bakar as Siddiq radiyallahu ‘anhu as he is the most eligible to lead the affairs of dunia and akhirah after Abu Bakar radiyallahu ‘anhu. Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallah is reported to have said “If there was a nabi after me it would have been Umar.”

In the beginning, he was very hostile towards Islam. However, through the blessing of the supplication of Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam, he embraced Islam. Abdullah bin Mas’ud said, “The Islam of Umar was a victory, his migration was an aid and his rule was a mercy.” Ali radhiyallahu ‘anhu said that in the beginning of Islam, hijrah (migration) occurs secretly. When Umar radhiyallahu ‘anhu decided to migrate, he hanged his sword on his neck and held his bow on his hand and carried sufficient arrows. Then he performed Tawaaf around the Ka’bah and prayed there peacefully. After offering his prayer, he went to the place of the disbelievers and said to them “Whoever wants his mother to mourn over him, and his child to become orphan, and his wife to become widow, he can go outside the sacred land of Mecca to face Umar radhiyallahu ‘anhu. After that, Umar went and no one dared to go against him. After ten years and six months of leading the ummah with good example and asceticism, he eventually passed away as a martyr in Madinah. By the 24th year after hijrah, he breathed his last and joined his two close companions; Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam and Abu Bakar radhiyallahu ‘anhu. 

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Sayyidina Uthman al Ghani radiyallahu ‘anhu

To appoint a khalifah after him, Umar radiyallahu ‘anhu has assigned a shura committee who are worthy of appointing and being appointed. To simplify the appointment, all members of the shura relinquished their rights of being appointed except for Uthmaan and Ali radiyallahu ‘anhuma. Due to the opinion the Muhajireen and the Ansaar that none is equal to Uthmaan radiyallahu ‘anhu, he was then appointed. Those who feel that Ali radiyallahu ‘anhu is more eligible has belittled the opinion of the Muhajireen and Ansaar who have sacrificed their health and wealth with Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam in Aqaabah, Uhud, and Hudaibiyah. Uthmaan radiyallahu ‘anhu was known as “Dhun Nuurain” (possessor of two lights) as he was married to two princesses of Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam, Ruqaiyyah and Ummu Kulthuum radiyallahu ‘anhuma. Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam used to wear casually in front of Abu Bakr and Umar radiyallahu ‘anhuma but will adjust his clothing when Uthmaan radiyallahu ‘anhu arrives.

During the battle of Tabuuk, Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam announced that whoever contributes for this army will enter paradise. Uthmaan radiyallahu ‘anhu thus spent 10,000 dinaars. While turning those dinaars, Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said, “After this day, it is alright if Uthmaan doesn’t possess any other deeds.” Sayyidina Uthman radiyallahu ‘anhu passed away in the 35th hijri after leading the ummah for about 12 years full of patience until eventually he was martyred in Madinah while fasting. 

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Sayyidina Ali al Murtadha radiyallahu ‘anhu

After the martyrdom of Uthman radiyallahu ‘anhu, the only person left worthy of being appointed khalifaa was Ali radiyallahu ‘anhu. The Muhajireen and the Ansaar in Madinah immediately gave their allegiance to Ali radiyallahu ‘anhu in the year 35 hijri.

Imaam Ahmad rahmatulllahi ‘alaih said “No sahabi whose virtues have been narrated like that of Ali radiyallahu ‘anhu” He was a cousin and son in law of Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam. One cannot deny his braveness in the battlefield. His love for Allah ta’ala and Rasul sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam was proven by Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam himself in the battle of Khaybar. Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam himself nurtured and trained him since childhood. He had gone through all efforts and sacrifices, ease and difficulties, together with the Rasul of Allah ta’ala from the very beginning. It is through him that the mission of tarbiah and tazkiyyah (self-rectification) continues to the next generation regardless the worldly and governmental constraints.

Although Sayyidina Ali radiyallahu ‘anhu was at that time the best living being on the face of the earth and most worthy to lead the ummah in religious and worldly affairs, the condition of his followers did not permit him to execute his administrative task well. Disunity, infighting and misunderstanding deteriorate the matters to the extent that he died as a martyr in the 40th year of hijrah after leading the ummah for about 5 years.

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3.     Hasan Basri rah.a

(… – 110 hijrah)

There is a dispute amongst the scholars regarding the narration of Hassan Al Basri rahmatullah alaih from Ali radiyallahu ‘anhu. What is certain is that Hassan Al Basri was nurtured by the sahaabah radiyallahu ‘anhum and was blessed with their company. Umar radiyallahu ‘anhu performed his tahnik and he was nurtured in the blessed environment of the Sahaabah. His mother, Khairah, was a freed slave of Ummu Salaamah radhiyallahu ‘anha.[1] He was born two years prior to the martyrdom of Umar radiyallahu ‘anhu.

He started to pray his five daily prayers in congregation behind Uthmaan radiyallahu ‘anhu at the age of seven and memorized the entire Qur’an at the age of ten. The bitter incident of martyrdom of Uthmaan radiyallahu ‘anhu was witnessed by him when he was fourteen and he himself saw Zubair radiyallahu ‘anhu taking the pledge of allegiance to Ali radiyallahu ‘anhu.

After the demise of the Khulafaa Rashidun (rightly guided caliph) and great companions of Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam, he became a central figure amongst the tabi’in who continued with the mission of tarbiah, introducing people to Allah ta’ala as was done by the Khulaafa of Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam before him. He then moved to Basrah and taught the people with eloquence of speech and excellent example. He passed away in Basrah in the year 110 hijri at the age of about ninety years old. [2] 

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4.     Abdul Wahid bin Zaid, Abu Ubaidah Al Basri rah.a

(… – 150 hijrah)

Abdul Wahid rahmatullah ‘alaih is mentioned by Imam Zahabi as Shaikul Basrah al-zahid al-qudwah (the ascetic sheikh of tasawwuf in Basrah who can be followed).[3] He used to say, “I don’t wish for Basrah and whatever it contains even for the value of two cents.”He narrated hadith from Hasan Al Basri, Ata’ bin Rabah rahmatullah 'alaihima and many more. Amongst those who had narrated from him were, Waki’ bin Jarrah, Zaid bin Hubab, Abu Daud at Tayalisi, Abdus Samad bin Abdul Warith and Sulaiman Ad Darani. However, in the field hadith, he is a weak narrator. Ibn Hibban said, “He was overpowered by ibaadah (worship) until he overlooked perfection in the field of hadith. Due to that, there are many contradictions in his narrations.[4]

He emphasized the importance of effort for gaining success in the hereafter, not relying only on destiny. This caused him to be associated with the ideology of Qadariyyah, a sect who do not belief in destiny. For 40 years, he performed Fajr with his ablution of Ishaa. Abu Sulaiman said that Abdul Wahid suffered a paralysis. He supplicated to Allah ta’ala to be free from that sickness whenever he performs ablution. Subsequently, whenever he intends to perform ablution, he will be able to walk and when he returns to his bed, he will become paralyzed again.”[5] He passed away after the year 150 hijrah.[6] 

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5.     Fudhail bin ‘Iyad rah.a

(… – 187 hijrah)

Fudhail bin ‘Iyad rahmatullah ‘alayh was born in Samarqand and studied in Kufah in his adulthood and then settled in Makkah. He was a robber. Due to his love for a woman, he climbed a wall just to meet her. Then he heard someone reciting a verse of the Qur’an, which means, “Had the time not yet come for the hearts of believers to submit.” Hearing this, he said, “Oh my Lord, the time has come.” Then he immediately returned and in that very night, he bumped into one group of travelers. One of them said, “Let’s go.” The other said, “Let’s wait until the morning, Fudhail is on the road, he will rob us.” Hearing this, he thought, “I wanted to commit sin tonight while the Muslims are afraid of me.” I feel that Allah ta’ala has decreed for me to find them so that I will stop. O Allah, I am repenting to you and I will stay in Masjidil Haram as a sign of my repentance”[7]

He then changed and became a pious scholar that Imaam Bukhaari and Imaam Muslim mentioned his name in their books of hadith. The Khalifaah Harun Ar Rashid said, “I have not seen a scholar who is awed more than Imaam Malik and who is more pious than Fudhail bin Iyaadh.”[8] Whenever he makes dhikr (remembrance of Allah ta’ala) or he hears the name of Allah ta’ala or the recitation of Qur’an, a sign of fear and sadness will appear on his face. His will break into tears until those around him will feel sad for him[9]. He passed away in the year 187 hijrah. 

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6.     Ibrahim bin Adham, Abu Ishaq al Balkhi rah.a

(… – 162 hijrah)

Ibrahim bin Adham was from a rich family. Some narration says that he is from the descendants of the kings in Balkh, Khurasaan. His father possessed plenty of wealth, servants, and conveyance. While hunting on his horse, he heard one voice saying, “Oh Ibrahim, what kind of play is this? Do you think that you were created in vain? Fear Allah ta’ala and be ready for the day of poverty (hereafter). Hearing this, he immediately descended from his horse and gave away all his belongings to a shepherd.[10] He then secluded himself and accompanied Sufyan Ath Thawri and Fudhail bin Iyaadh in Makkah. After that, he settled in Shaam and lived from his own earnings there.

Another narration says that, while Ibrahim is sleeping in his castle, from his room he heard a sound of a person climbing the roof. He asked, “What are you doing on my roof?” The sound replied, “My camel is lost and I’m looking for it.” He then said, “How ignorant is he who looks for a camel on a roof.” The answer came, “More foolish is he who looks for Allah ta’ala inside a castle with all its luxuries.” This incident made him leave the luxurious life and spend the leftover of his life in worship. [11]

He passed away in the year 162 hijrah in Jableh, Shaam and his grave is still being visited up until today. 

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7.     Hudzaifah bin Qatadah al Mar’ashi rah.a

(… – 207 hijrah)

Sheikh Hudzaifah Al Mar’ashi rahmatullah ‘alayh is a famous wali (friend) of Allah ta’ala. In Tarikh Madinah Dimasq, it is narrated that Junaid Baghdaadi rahmatullah ‘alayh heard Sariy Saqati saying, “There was a time where there were four really pious persons; Hudzaifah Al Mar’ashi, Ibrahim bin Adhaam, Yusuf bin Asbat, and Sulaiman Al Khawwas. They observe their piety and when things become difficult, they will suffice with little.”

In the Hilyatul Auliya, Abu Nu’aim quoted some of his brilliant sayings. Amongst it is “If you do not fear Allah’s punishment for your best of deeds then you are destroyed.” He also said “If an angel descends from the heaven telling me that I will not see the hell fire and I will enter paradise but I will need to first stand in front of Allah ta’ala for reckoning, then I will tell him that I don’t want paradise and I don’t want to stand in that place.” Amongst his sayings also was that “I rather abandon one lie for the sake of Allah ta’ala than performing pilgrimage.”[12]

Ash Sha’rani has quoted him saying, “I don’t know an action which is better than staying in the house. If there were an excuse that can free a person from going out to perform these compulsory deeds, I would have done so. ”In Tabaqaat Kubra, Ash Sha’rani stated that Hudzaifah Al Mar’ashi rahmatullah ‘alayh passed away in the year 207 hijrah.[13] 

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8.     (Abu) Hubairah Basri rah.a

(167 – 287 hijrah)

Most elders have written his name as Hubairah while others call him Abu Hubairah. His nickname is Aminuddin. He was born in Basrah where he completed his formal studies at the age of seventeen as a scholar and hafiz of Qur’an.

Abu Hubairah rahmatullah ‘alayh started his mujahaadah at a young age. He completes the recital of the whole Qur’an twice daily. After striving for thirty years, he cried bitterly as he regarded himself unsuccessful in the field of tasawwuf. Then he heard a voice saying that, “If you want to study suluk, go and accompany Huzaifah Al Mar’ashi.” After only a week in his company, he reached the perfection of suluk as he had thirty years striving experience. After a year, Huzaifah Al Mar’ashi rahmatullah ‘alayh appointed him as khalifa. He narrated that, when his teacher appointed him as khalifah, he had a dream of meeting with Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam and the souls of the walis (friends of Allah ta’ala). All of them made dua for him. He loved to be in seclusion and spent most of his life in his room.

Hubairah rahmatullah ‘alayh passed away at the age of 120 and was buried in Basrah. Regarding his khalifa, Maulana Zakariyya rahmatullah ‘alayh wrote, “Maybe he has another khalifa, but I only know of Mimshadz who is in our silsilah.”[14] 

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Mimshadz ad Dinawari rah.a through Junaid rah.a

 

1.    Rasulullah sallahu ‘alaihi wasallam

2.    Ali bin Abi Talib radhiyallahu ‘anhu

3.    Hasan al Basri rahmatullah ‘alaih

 

4.    Abdul Wahid bin Zaid

4.     Habib al ‘Ajami

5.    Fudhail bin ‘Iyadh

5.     Daud at To’i

6.    Ibrahim bin Adham

6.     Ma’ruf al Karkhi

7.    Huzaifah al Mar’ashi

7.     As Sariy as Saqoti

8.    Hubairah

8.     Junaid al Baghdadi

 

 

9.    Mimshadz ad Dinawari rahmatullah ‘alaih

 

 

Records from the tariqaah of Qadiriyyah and Suhrawardiyyah has named Junaid al Baghdadi as the teacher of Mimshadz. According to the silsilah record of Chishtiyyah, Mimshadz rahmatullah alaih accompanied Hubairah rahmatullah ‘alaih. It is possible that he has actually taken spiritual benefit from both personalities.

There is an interruption, however, in the chain of Junaid Baghdaadi because the meeting of Ma’ruf and Daud at To’i cannot be established as explained by Ibnu Hajar Haitami and Imam Zahabi.[15]  Likewise, the case between Daud and Al ‘Ajami.[16]  

Aside from Mimshadz, another famous student of Junaid Baghdaadi is Sheikh Abu Bakar Shibli rahmatullah alaih. [17]  

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9.     Mimshadz ad Dinawari rah.a

( ... – 297/299 hijrah)

Mimshadz rahmatullah ‘alayh was from Dinawar, a city in the region of Kermanshan, Iran between Hamdan and Baghdaad. He is also known as Karimuddin Mun’im because of his generosity. He always helps the poor and provides for their needs. He was very wealthy but then he preferred the way of the ascetics and migrated to Makkah. He loves fasting since he was young. Imam Az-Zahabi rahmatullah ‘alayh said “Mimshadz accompanied Yahyah Al Jila’ and many elders like him.”[18]

At the time of death, a man supplicated paradise for him. Hearing this dua, he laughs saying “For over thirty years, paradise and its bounties have been shown to me but I didn’t even look at it. I want the Owner of that paradise Himself.”[19]

In Sifat us Safwah, Ibul Jauzi has quoted Mimshadz rahmatullah ‘alayh sayings, “How bad is it to be negligent of obeying Him who is not neglectful in doing good to you, and to be negligent of remembering Him who is not neglectful in remembering you.” He also said, “Companionship with the pious causes piety in the heart. Companionship with an evil person corrupts the heart.”[20]

Imaam Sha’rani wrote that Mimshadz rahmatullah ‘alayh passed away in the year 297 hijrah.[21] He was burried in his hometown, Dinawar. 

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PART2: Chishtiyyah IN CHISHT

 

 

  1. Rasulullah sallahu ‘alaihi wasallam
  2. Ali bin Abi Talib radhiyallahu ‘anhu
  3. Hasan al Basri rahmatullah ‘alaih

Chishti line

Junaid Baghdadi line

4.       Abdul Wahid bin Zaid

4.       Habib al ‘Ajmi

5.       Fudhail bin ‘Iyadh

5.       Daud at To’i

6.       Ibrahim bin Adham

6.       Ma’ruf al Karkhi

7.       Huzaifah al Mar’ashi

7.       As Sariy as Saqoti

8.       Hubairah

8.       Junaid al Baghdadi

9.       Mimshadz as Dinawari

9.       Abu Muhammad al Hariri

10.    Abu Ishaq as Shami

10.    Abdullah at Tabari

11.    Sayyid Abu Ahmad Abdaal

11.    Abul Abbas Ahmad al Qassab

12.    Sayyid Abu Muhammad

12.    Abu Sa’id Abul Khair

13.    Sayyid Abu Yusuf Chishti

13.    Abu Nasral Namaqi al Jami

 

  1. Qutbuddin Maudud rahmatullah ‘alaih
  2. Haji Sharif Zindani
  3. Uthman Haruni

 

 10.  Abu Ishaq Shami rah.a

( ... – 329 hijrah)

Abu Ishaaq Shami rahmatullah ‘alayh was born in Chisht, a small town near Herat, Afghanistan. He was a person of asceticism and will only eat after seven days. He preferred the enjoyment and comfort of hunger to any other pleasure. He said, “The mi’raaj of the poor is hunger.”

Before taking bai’ah, he performed istikharaah for forty days consecutively until his heart was inclined to meet Mimshaadz ad Dinawari. It was said that when his teacher, Mimshaadz ad Dinawari rahmatullah ‘alayh asked his name, he answered “Abu Ishaq Shami.” Thereupon, his teacher said, “From now on, you will be known as Abu Ishaq Chishti because the residence of Chisht will study from you and your silsilah will be known as Chishtiyyah until the day of judgement. As predicted, the silsilah started to be known as Chishtiyyah from his time. After him, some elders of the silsilah also held from Chisht. Once a ruler visited him and the latter cried. When asked for the reason, he said, “The frequency of the ruler’s visit has made me feel afraid that I have committed a sin. It decreases my connection with the poor people. I’m afraid that I will die along with the rich and not with the poor.”[22]

He passed away in Akkah, at the border of Shaam in the year 329 hijrah.  Amongst the khalifahs he appointed are Khwajah Abu Ahmad Abdaal, Khwajah Abu Muhammad and Khwajah Taajuddin. 

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11.  Sayyid Abu Ahmad Abdaal Chishti rah.a

(260 – 355 hijrah)

Abu Ahmad Abdaal rahmatullah ‘alayh was a descendant of Sayyidina Hassan radhiyallahu ‘anhu. His father was the governor of Gharchistan, an old province in the east of Herat. Abu Ishaaq Shaami used to visit his father, Farsafanah. According to the instinct of Abu Ishaaq rahmatullah ‘alayh, Sultan Farsafana will have a prince. Therefore, he was advised not to eat doubtful food. Then, Abu Ahmad Abdaal was born in Chisht in the year 260 hijra during the rule of the Abbasid caliph, Mu’tamid ‘Ala Allah.

Since the age of seven, he frequented Abu Ishaq Shaami and acquired knowledge of shariah and tariqah from him. He took the pledge of allegiance to his teacher at the age of sixteen. Some has narrated that he took bay’ah at the age of thirteen.

It was his routine to read the entire Qur’an once during the day and twice at night. For thirty years, he did not sleep on a bed. He did not accept any gifts and he abstained from eating delicious food and wearing beautiful garments. He was known for various karaamat (miracles) and pious people of his time regard him as a Wali Qutub and of the Abdaal.

He passed away in Chisht in the year 355 hijrah. Amongst the khalifahs appointed by him are Khwajah Abu Muhammad and Khwajah Khuda Bandah.[23] 

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12.  Abu Muhammad bin Abu Ahmad Chishti rah.a

(331 – 411 hijrah)

Abu Muhammad rahmatullah ‘alayh was a descendant of Sayyidina Hassan radhiyallahu ‘anhu. He was born in the year 331 hijrah and was a khalifaah of his father, Abu Ahmad Chishti. The sound of zikrullah was heard since he was in his mother’s womb. He took the pledge of allegiance at the age of seven and sat alone in his room until he reached twelve. He fasted every day and used to perform a lot of mujaahadah.

His sister also was a very pious woman. She was always in the remembrance of Allah ta’ala and was not inclined in getting married. Abu Muhammad rahmatullah ‘alayh said to her, “You are destined to have a prince who will become wali qutub.” However, due to her devotion in remembering Allah, she refuses to get married. After a few days, she had a dream that his father gave her the same instruction of getting married. When her brother, Abu Muhammad Chisht and her soon to be husband, Muhammad Sam’an also had the same dream, she finally agreed to get married and through that marriage, Abu Yusuf bin Sam’an was born and later became a khalifaah to Abu Muhammad Chishti.

Amongst his khalifahs were Khwajah Muhammad Kaku and Khwajah Ustad Marwan. At the age of seventy, he and his students participated in the holy war alongside Sultan Muhammad Ghaznawi againts Somnath in India. He passed away in Chisht in the year 411 hijrah at the age of eighty.[24] 

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13.  Sayyid Abu Yusuf Chishti rah.a

(... – 459 hijrah)

Sayyid Abu Yusuf Chishti rahmatullah ‘alayh was born in Chisht. He was the thirteenth descendant of Sayyidinah Husain radhiyallahu ‘anhu on his father side. On his mother side, he was the tenth descendant of Sayyidina Hassan radhiyallahu ‘anhu. He received spiritual training from his maternal uncle, Abu Muhammad Chishti rahmatullah ‘alayh. Due to laziness in ibaadah (worship), he punished his own self by not drinking for twenty years. He has a special place in his house where he secluded himself for twelve years. 

One day, he passed by a masjid which is under construction. The wooden beam for the roof was not long enough. When he was informed of the matter, he came down from his horse and went up the masjid’s roof. He took hold of one side of the wood and it became long enough for the roof. Amongst the miracles attributed to Sayyid Abu Yusuf rahmatullah ‘alayh was that once he and his company were very thirsty. He struck a stone with his staff and water started to gush from it.

Sayyid Abu Yusuf passed away at the age of 84 years in Chisht. Before breathing his last, he appointed his son Sayyid Qutbuddin Maudud as his successor.[25] 

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14.  Qutubuddin Maudud Chishti rah.a

(430-527 hijrah)

Sayyid Qutbuddin Maudud rahmatullah ‘alayh was also known as Siraaj-e-Chishtiyyah (Lamp of the Chishtiyyah). He was born one year after Tughrul Bey, the founder of the Seljuk Empire, had entered Marw, defeating the Ghaznawid army and establishing Suljuk Empire in Khurasan. He witnessed the rise of the Suljuk government along with its minister Nizamul Mulk until the first fall of that government.

Sayyid Qutbuddin rahmatullah ‘alayh was a descendant of Sayyidina Husain radhiyallahu ‘anhu and received khilaafah from his father Sayyid Abu Yusuf bin Sam’an rahmatullah ‘alayh. He was able to memorize the Qur’an at the age of seven and completed his study of shariah at the age of sixteen. Amongst his written books were Minhajul Arifin and Khulaasatus Shariah.

His father passed away when he was twenty years old. At this young age, he continue to fulfil the responsibility of leading the people. He passed away in Chisht at the age of 97. He appointed many khulafa’ to help him continue with the effort of self-reformation. Amongst them were, Khwajah Abu Ahmad, Sharif Zandani, Shah Sanjan, Sheikh Abu Nasir Shakeeban, Sheikh Hassan Tibti, Sheikh Ahmad Baderun, Khwajah Sabz Paush, Sheikh Uthman Awwal and Kwajah Abul Hasan.[26] 

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15.Haji Sharif az-Zindani rah.a

(492-580 hijrah)

He was born in village in Bukhara called Zindanah in the year 492 hijrah. He was a khalifaah of Sayyid Qutbuddin Maudud Chishti. He lived in the jungle and secluded himself from the society for forty years sufficing on leaves and any edibles there. He preferred being poor and being hungry. His garment was always untidy. He will only break his fast after three days with leaves without even a salt.

He always cries and sometimes he cries until he loses his consciousness. When asked about his condition, he said, “I can’t hold myself whenever I think about this verse. ‘I did not create mankind and jin except to worship Me.’ I am created for worship while I am busy with something else.

Once someone offered him gold as gift but he refused to accept it while pointing towards the jungle saying, “This jungle is full of this thing.” Suddenly, there was a small river flowing with gold. He passed away in the year 612 hijrah at the age of 120. There are some opinion shows that the date of his death was 580 or 584 hijrah. According to some narration, his grave is in Qanuj and some says in Shaam.[27] 

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16.Uthman Haruni Chishti rah.a

( ... – 617 hijrah)

Uthman Haruni Chishti rahmatullah ‘alayh was born in Harun, a province in Naisabur. He was proficient in the field of shariah and tariqaah. He used to recite the whole Qur’an everyday.

When he was appointed as a khalifaah, his teacher clothed him with four sided topi and said, ““This symbolizes four renunciations. Renunciation of the world, renunciation of the Aakhirah except Allah Ta’ala, renunciation of sleep and renunciation of carnal desires.” For seventy years, he made mujahadaah of not eating fully and drinking only a mouth full of water in every seven days. Amongst his brilliant sayings was, “A person who has these three qualities is a wali of Allah ta’ala; generous like the ocean, kind like the moon, and humble like the earth.”

On one journey, he and his student, Muinuudin came to a river while there was no boat by which they can cross. Therefore, Uthman Haruni commanded his student to close his eyes and, after a while, commanded him to open it again. Suddenly, they were already on the other side of the river.

Uthman Haruni passed away in the year 617 hijrah in Makkah. He has four well-known khalifahs, Muinuddin Ajmeri, Najmuddin Shugra, Sheikh Suri Mangohi and Muhammad Turk.[28] 

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Part 3: Early Chishtiyyah in India

 

  1. Rasulullah sallahu ‘alaihi wasallam
  2. Ali bin Abi Talib radhiyallahu ‘anhu
  3. Hasan al Basri rahmatullah ‘alaih

 

4.      Abdul Wahid bin Zaid

4.       Habib al ‘Ajmi

5.       Fudhail bin ‘Iyadh

5.       Daud at To’i

6.       Ibrahim bin Adham

6.       Ma’ruf al Karkhi

7.       Huzaifah al Mar’ashi

7.       As Sariy as Saqoti

8.       Hubairah

8.       Junaid al Baghdadi

9.       Mimshadz ad Dinwari

·                   

 

·                   

·                   

 

13.  Sayyid Abu Yusuf Chishti

13.    Abu Nasral Namaqi al Jami

 

 

  1. Qutbuddin Maudud
  2. Haji Sharif Zindani
  3. Uthman Haruni
  4. Mu’inuddin Ajmeri Chishti
  5. Bakhtiar Kaaki
  6. Fariduddin Ganj Shakar
  7. Ali Ahmad Sãbir Kalyari
  8. Shamsuddin Turk Paani Patti
  9. Jalaluddin Paani Patti
  10. Ahmad Abdul Haq Rudolwi
  11. Aarif (Ahmad) Rudolwi
  12. Muhammad bin Arif Rudolwi

 

17.Mu’inuddin Hasan as Sijzi al Ajmeri rah.a

(537 – 627hijrah)

Mu’inuddin Hasan bin Hasan as Sijzi al Ajmeri rahmatullah ‘alayh was born in Sanjar, a place in Sistan (Sijistan), Iran. He is a head figure in the field of tasawwuf in Hindustan. Through him, the chain of Chishtiyyah started to spread and continuously grows in in the Indian subcontinent. He was a descendant of Sayyidina Husain rahmatullah 'alaih.

He traveled to Samarqand to memorize the Qur’an and to seek the knowledge of shariah. He then traveled around Iraq and gave his allegiance to Sheikh Uthman Haruni Chishti rahmatullah ‘alayh. He served and accompanied his sheikh for twenty years. [29] They spent some of this period in Makkah and Madinah where his teacher appointed him as khalifaah and supplicated for him.

Besides Harun Chishti rahmatullah ‘alayh, he also took benefit from Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani, Abu Najib Suhrawardi and Sheikh Najmuddin Kubra.

He is very particular about practicing shariah. Once, while performing ablution, he forgot to make khilaal (to interlock the fingers). He then heard a voice saying, “You claim to love Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam but you are leaving out his sunnah.” After that, every time he sees fire, he will start to shiver out of fear of what will happen to him in the hereafter for leaving out that particular sunnah.[30] Some of his advices have been gathered by his student, Qutbuddin Bakhtiar in a book entitled ‘Dalilul Arifin’. 

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18.Sheikh Qutbud Din Bakhtiar al Ka’ki rah.a

(528 - 633 hijri)

Sheikh Bakhtiar was born in Uush; a city in Tajikistan. After memorizing the Qur’an under Qadi Hamiduddin Nagauri, his eagerness to delve in spiritual knowledge became intense. Subsequently, he gave his allegiance to Sheikh Mu’inuddin Ajmeri and was appointed khalifah at the age of seventeen. He was the first khalifaah of Mu’inuddin Ajmeri. Upon the command of his sheikh, he settled down in Delhi, India. Citizens of Delhi loved him so much. The governor of Delhi, Sultan Shamsuddin Iltatmish himself had derived spirituals benefits from him.[31] After staying for some time in Delhi, he had the intention to return to Ajmer to accompany his sheikh. This saddened the people of Delhi so much that they requested for his return. Eventually, Sheikh Mu’inuddin permitted him to return to Delhi.

Due to necessity, his wife once took a debt from a neighbor. The neighbor said that if it were not because of his help, she would have die out of hunger. Hearing that, he commanded his wife to read bismillah and to take ‘kaak’ (one type of food) from one cabinet. Every time she goes to the cabinet, she will definitely find kaak. From thereon he was known as ‘Kaaki.’[32] He passed away in the city called Mahroli. He had 20 successors but the Chishti silsilah continued from him only through three persons, Fariduddin Ganj Shakar, Sheikh Badruddin Ghaznawi and Shah Khidr Qalandarawi. 

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19.Fariduddin Mas’ud Ganj Shakar rah.a

(569-664 hijrah)

Sheikh Mu’inuddin Ajmeri rahmatullah ‘alayh introduced Chishtiyyah to India. However, the one who was instrumental in spreading it throughout this subcontinent was Sheikh Fariduddin rahmatullah ‘alayh along with his hundreds of khulafa’ (successors).

Shiekh Fariduddin rahmatullah ‘alayh was born in Kohtwaal, a place in Multan. His name is Mas’ud but famously known as Baba Farid. For the sake of Mujaahadah, Sheikh Bakhtiar Kaaki rahmatullah ‘alayh advice him to remain fasting and be in constant hunger. His hunger forced him to suck from sand and stones. Miraculously, the sand became sugar due to which he got the tiltle Ganj Shakar, which means warehouse of sugar.[33]

After completing his study, he accompanied Shiekh Bakhtiar rahmatullah ‘alayh to Delhi. Before his death, Sheikh Bakhtiar appointed him as his khalifaah. Because of the hustle and bustle and luxuries of that capital city, he went into seclusion at Ajodhan, a place known today as Pakpattan in the province Montgomery, Pakistan.[34] He was unable to hide his fame there as well and has to accept many visitors who visit him until late night. He lived a very simple life until he passed away. The two famous khalifaah of his were Nizamuddin Aulia’ rahmatullah ‘alayh and Ali Sabir Kalyari rahmatullah ‘alayh, the founders of Nizami and Sabiri branches of Chishty silsilah respectively. 

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20.Ala’uddin Ali bin Ahmad as Sabir al Kalyari rah.a

(592-690 hijrah)

Nuzhatul Khawatir describes him as “Sheikh ‘Alauddin Ali bin Ahmad as Sabir al Isra’ili al Kalyari. One of those famous saints of India. He was of Jewish origin and a descendant of Nabi Musa alayhis salaam. He was fortunate for having the chance to accompany Sheikh Fariduddin Mas’ud al Ajuudahni in his youth and continued to accompany him for a long period with extreme zuhud (ascetism) and mujaahadah by which he reached a level rarely achieved by his companions. His teacher then sent him to Kalyar, a flourishing city in the mountain valleys of Central India (about 60 km east of Saharanpur). He accupied himself with teaching and worship. Syeikh Syamsuddin Turkmani is a student of his. He passed away on 13th of Rabi’ul Awwal in the year 689 or 690 hijrah as recorded in Mihr Jhaan Taab.” [35]

When serving for twelve years in the kitchen of the khanqaah of Sheikh Fariduddin rahmatullah ‘alayh, he always fast and never had any food from the kitchen because of not obtaining clear permission. Sheikh Fariduddin came to know this afterwards and asked about this situation. He answered, “What is the right of a slave to take food without the permission of the master.” Hearing this, Sheikh Fariduddin rahmatullah ‘alayh called him ‘Saabir’, which means someone who is patience. [36] 

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Suhbah (Accompanying pious people)

Suhbah means accompanying pious people to learn Deen practically, not only by theory. Knowledge of Deen is so vast that sometimes it can be confusing. Accompanying and observing pious people can assist in realizing the relevance of knowledge. Confusions and mistakes usually do occur in the acts of worship and etiquettes of Islam. With physical companionship, the murshid (spiritual guide) can immediately realize the mistakes and correct them on the spot without the disciple having to explain his problems in many words. Experiences show that one will not be able to practice Deen by just listening to sermons and reading books. Just as any worldly practice, the practice of Deen also needs real mentoring, guide and support.

The elders of tasawwuf recommend disciples to visit their murshid frequently and stay with them for long period in a khanqaah where tasawwuf programs take place. To avoid confusion and differences of approach in tarbiah, they recommend students to follow only the program organized by one murshid in any particular time. As for those who live far away from their murshid, correspondences and phone calls are alternatives to maintain this connection. 

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21.Shamsuddin at Turkmani al Paani Patti rah.a

( ... – 716 hijrah)

Shamsuddin bin Ahmad bin Abdul Mu’min was from Turkistan and a descendant of Muhammad bin al Hanafiyyah rahmatullah ‘alayh. After completing his study in his homeland, he starts travelling seeking for knowledge from various scholars in the cities of Central Asia. He then entered Hindustan for the same mission and took bai’ah from Sheikh Ala’uddin Ali bin Ahmad as Sabri in Kalyar. When Sheikh Ali as Sabir was on his deathbed, he appoints Shamsuddin as his Khalifah. [37] His teacher commanded him saying, “Panipaat was entrusted to you. After my demise, you must go and settle there and do not stay here for more than three days.”

Sheikh Shamsuddin Turk Paanipatti was among the main khalifaah of Shiekh Ala’uddin Ali Sabir. The book Siyarul Aqtaab mentioned that his teacher’s teacher, Sheikh Fariduddin Ganj Shakar, also appointed him as khalifaah.

Once he had taken employment in the king’s army. During the severely cold winter season, the section of the pond’s water where he would make wudhu, would miraculously become warm. The servant in charge of the king’s water discovered this strange phenomenon. The king was thus made aware. He therefore became an ardent devotee of Sheikh Shamsuddin Turk Paanipatti. The king even asked Sheikh Shamsuddin to supplicate against the enemy and took his advice regarding warfare.[38] 

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22.Jalaluddin Kabirul Awliya Paani Patti rah.a

( ... – 765 hijri)

Nuzhatul Khawatir describes him as “Sheikh al Imaam al ‘Alim as Saaleh, Muhammad bin Mahmud al Uthmaani ash Sheikh Jalaluddin al Pani Patti, known with the title Kabirul Auliya. He was among the saints who thread the path and practiced spiritual exercise. Divine attraction overwhelmed him during his youth causing him to travel and meet various great scholars and accompanied them. He learned the path from Shamsuddin Turki Pani Patti and accompanied him for sometimes. He then took over his position in leading and teaching the tariqah (path). Sheikh Ahmad Abdul Haq ar Radulwi rahmatullah ‘alayh and many other scholars have benefitted from him. Amongst his books are Zaadul Abraal fil Haqaa’iq wal Maa’rif. He was fortunate for having perfomed hajj (pilgrimage) and umrah twice. He passed away on the 13th of Rabiul Awwal in the year 765 hijrah in the city of Pani Patti and was buried there as mentioned in Siyarul Aqtaab.[39]

In the latter part of his life, he was always in the state of spiritual trance. His students will wake him up during prayer times. After prayer, he would once again lapse into the spiritual trance. He had forty khulafa’ and from each of them a separate silsilah originated.[40] 

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23.Ahmad Abdul Haq al Faruqi ar Ruduulwi rah.a

( ... – 836 hijrah)

Nuzhatul Khawatir describes him as “Ahmad bin Umar bin Daud al ‘Adaw al Umari ash Sheikh Abdul Haq ar Ruduulwi; a famous wali, a possessor of high status and clear miracles. No one in his time reached the same level as his in zuhud (ascetism) and ibaadah (worship). He was born and bred in Ruduuli, a prosperous village in the land of Uudh. He went to Delhi by his brother, Taqiyuddin, who was a great scholar and stayed with him for some time but did not achieve high academic level due to his tendency towards asceticism and mujaahadah. He went to Pani Pat where he met Sheikh Jalaluddin Mahmud thereby accompanied him and took tariqaah from him. He occupied himself with spiritual exercises for some time until Allah ta’ala opened up doors of realities and gnosis for him and made him amongst the scholars of firm knowledge. After his teacher’s death, he succeeded him for fifty years with zuhud (ascetism) and qana’ah (self-contentment). Many people benefitted from him.”[41]

When he was studying Nahu (Arabic Syntax), he once asked his brother regarding the example normally used in the subject ‘Zaid hit Amar’. He asked, “Why did Zaid hit Amar?” His brother explained that it is only an example and no one is actually hit. He answered, “If he hits him without any justified reason, then he has committed oppression. If he did not hit, then this is a lie. I do not want to study a subject that teaches oppression and lie.[42] 

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24.Aarif (Ahmad) al Faruqi ar Ruduulwi rah.a

( … - 882 hijrah )

Sheikh Arif bin Abdul Haq Rudulwi rahmatullah ‘alayh is a son and khalifaah of his father i.e. a physical and spiritual successor.

Some narration recorded his name as Sheikh Ahmad. Sheikh Ahmad Abdul Haq rahmatullah ‘alayh also had other sons but all of them died right after birth except Sheikh Arif rahmatullah ‘alayh. It was through him this silsilah continued.

Before he was born, his mother always cried out of grief because of her previous children had passed away before their birth. His father said that this child would live and according to the prediction, Sheikh Arif Rudulwi rahmatullah ‘alayh was then born.

When his father passed away, he was just seventeen years old. Despite of the tender age, he has already achieved spiritual perfection. After his father’s death, he ascended to the spiritual throne and quenched the thirst of the community with the knowledge of shari’ah and tariqaah. Amongst his superior character was that anyone who meets with him would feel that his attention focused only to him and not to others.

There is a lot of contradiction regarding the date of his death. Some says that he passed away on 17th Safar 882 hijrah.[43] 

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25.Muhammad bin Arif (Ahmad) ar Ruduulwi rah.a

( … - 898 hijrah)

Sheikh Muhammad rahmatullah ‘alayh was an appointed khalifah of his father, Sheikh Arif ar Rudolwi rahmatullah ‘alayh. Among his students was the famous wali in India, Sheikh Abdul Quddus Gangohi rahmatullah ‘alayh who has a spiritual affiliation with the grandfather of Sheikh Muhammad i.e. Sheikh Abdul Haq Ruduulwi rahmatullah ‘alayh. However, he also wanted a physical connection with him. Therefore, he gave his allegiance to his noble grandson thereby gaining both spiritual and physical connections with him.

On his deathbed, his son, Sheikh Auliya, also known as Sheikh Buddah, was in Shah Abad with Abdul Quddus Gangohi. He called him to be in his present. They arrived when he was nearly dying and always in the state of deep thought and trance. Whenever he awakes, he will say, “Alhamdulillah, I have understood.” Sheikh Abdul Quddus asked him what he understood. He answered, “I have understood tawheed (monotheism).” Sheikh Gangohi rahmatullah ‘alayh asked for permission to stay in other place after his death for he was worried that he will not be able to control his sadness of not seeing his teacher again in Ruduuli. He consented and instructed that his son, Sheikh Buddah, should stay in Ruduulwi when he is worthy of becoming khalifaah. Sheikh Gangohi rahmatullah ‘alayh fulfilled the will of his teacher. The date of his death mentioned in the Shajaraat (Documents listing the names of the Silsilah) is 898 hijrah.[44] 

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Part4: Meeting Suhrawardiyyah

 

9.      Mimshadz ad Dinawari

 

10.   Abu Ishaq as Shami

10.    Ahmad al Aswad ad Dinawari

·                   

11.   Abu Ahmad bin Ammuwaih

·                   

12.   Wajihuddin Abul Hafs

17.    Mu’inuddin Ajmeri Chishti

13.   Dhiya’uddin Abdul Qahir

18.    Bakhtiar Kaaki

14.   Shihabuddin Umar Suhrawardi

19.    Fariduddin Ganj Shakar

15.   Baha’uddin Zakariyya Multani

20.    Ali Ahmad Sabir Kalyari

16.   Sadruddin Arif Multani

21.    Shamsuddin Turk Paani Patti

17.   Ruknuddin Abul Fath Multani

22.    Jalaluddin Paani Patti

18.   Sayyid Jalaluddin Bukhari

23.    Ahmad Abdul Haq Rudolwi

19.   Sayyid Ajmal bin Amjad Bahriachi

24.    Aarif (Ahmad) Rudolwi

20.   Sayyid Bud’dhn Bahriachi

25.    Muhammad bin Arif Rudolwi

21.   Muhammad bin Qasim al Uudi

26.    Abdul Quddus Gangohi

22.   Abdul Quddus Gangohi

27.    Jalaluddin Faruqi Thanesri

28.    Nizamuddin Balkhi Thanesri

29.    Abu Sa’id Ganghohi

30.    Muhibullah I’laahabaadi

31.    Muhammadi Hargaami

32.    Muhammad Amrohwi

33.    Abdul Hadi Amrohwi

34.    Abdul Bari Amrohwi

 

26.Abdul Quddus al Gangohi rah.a

( ... – 944 hijrah)

The author of Nuzhatul Khawatir wrote that “Abdul Quddus Gangohi rahmatullah ‘alayh grew up in Ruduulwi. He studied Nahu and Sarf (Arabic syntax and etymology) from Mulla Fathullah Chukna. He then left his study and stayed near the grave of Sheikh Ahmad Abdul Haq Rudolwi for sometimes. Then he felt that tasawwuf without knowledge is like food without salt. Therefore, he continued to study and revise again until Allah ta’ala opened up for him the doors of knowledge and ma’rifah. He derived immense barakaah from the effulgence of Sheikh Ruduulwi rahmatullah ‘alayh and wore the khirqah from his grandson; Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Ahmad ar Rudolwi. He then moved to Shah Abad and then Ganggoh and settled there. “[45]

Sheikh Muhammad bin Qasim al Uudi[46] rahmatullah ‘alayh (896 hijrah) also appointed him as khalifaah in the Suhrawadiyya tariqah. Amongst books written by him are Anwarul ‘Uyun and Hasyiatut Ta’arruf which is a commentary on ‘Awariful Ma’aarif of Shihabuddin Umar Suhrawardi. He passed away in Ganggoh. There, three famous scholars from the Chishtiyyah genealogy were buried viz. Abdul Quddus Gangohi, Abu Sa’id Gangohi and Maulana Rashid Gangohi. He had seven sons. All of them were successful and honorable. Whenever they wanted to meet their father, the father, Syaikh Abdul Quddus himself will go to Delhi as not to disturb their study.[47] 

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Tawhidul Matlab

The elders of tasawwuf are of the opinion that just as the matluub (the thing that is being search) is one; the matlab (place of searching) should also be one.

A student of Sheikh Abdul Quddus Gangohi rahmatullah ‘alayh once felt that he had completed the journey of suluk (the path) under his teacher. He thought that there are many famous sheikhs around and there is nothing wrong to study in other places as well. Hence, he should visit the other elders as well but he felt it improper to reveal this thought to his Shaikh. However, the sheikh realized it. Therefore, he said, “Brother, Allah ta’ala says “Travel in the earth.” Therefore, if you for some time wander a bit here and there, you will obtain some relaxation as well as blessings of different elders. It is not wrong for you to ask any teacher regarding ma’rifatullah.”

The student felt pleased at this coincidence. He took leave and began his visiting spree. Every shaikh, whom he visited, instructed him with the same exercise of Paas Anfaas which he did at the initial stage of suluk. He was extremely perplexed, thinking to himself: ‘Everyone to whom I go, begin me off with Alif, Baa, Taa. Whatever else I had hitherto practiced has become futile.” Ultimately, feeling very embarrassed, he returned to Shaikh Gangohi and repented. The sheikh said: “Brother, are you now satisfied? Now sit in solitude and with undivided attention take Allah’s Name.”[48] 

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27.Sheikh Jalaluddin al Faruqi at Thanesri rah.a

( ... – 969/989 hijrah)

Sheikh Jalaluddin Mahmud at Thanesri rahmatullah ‘alayh was from Balkh and a descendant of Sayyidina Umar radhiyallahu ‘anhu. He was a person of knowledge and was always busy with teaching, writing, issuing fatwa and other works. He then took bai’ah to Sheikh Abdul Quddus Gangohi rahmatullah ‘alayh and upon the command of his sheikh, he took on the responsibility of tarbiah. He committed himself to asceticism and worship. He lived for ninety-three years and was thin due to heavy spiritual exercises.[49]

Obedience to the Sunnah was his second nature as it was of all the Chishti elders. Once when he was bedridden with illness and has to take medicine. Although he could not even sit, he instructed those by him to lift him off the bed and place him on the ground. In obedience to his instruction this was done. After he was seated on the ground, he took the medicine and said, “It is not confirmed that Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam ate anything while sitting on a bed or chair.”[50]

In his book, Irshadud Taalibin, he wrote, “The lovers of Allah don’t teach kashf and karaamat. Their purpose is to worship, zuhud (asceticism), and piety. They will never leave out these things. Rather they will destroy their desires and kill it before they could die.” He also said, “Ignorant sufis who have strayed from the straight path have misguided the others. They are deprived of wusul (reaching proximity to Allah) because they have neglected the usul (the roots) and the roots are the observance of shari’ah and tariqah.”[51] 

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28.Nizamuddin al Balkhi al Thanesri rah.a

( ... – 1024 hijrah)

Nizamuddin bin Abdul Syakur rahmatullah ‘alayh was a khalifah, son-in-law, and nephew of Sheikh Jalaluddin Thanesri rahmatullah ‘alayh. He has gathered knowledge, practice, riyadhah and mujahadah (spiritual exercises and efforts). [52] His teacher kept him busy with the responsibility of leading and teaching suluk to others. When he was still alive, Sheikh Jalaluddin commanded all of his students and khalifaah to refer to Nizamuddin Balkhi rahmatullah ‘alayh. Some of his books are a commentary on Lama’at of ‘Iraqi, a commentary on Sawanih of Imam Ghazali, Risalah Al-Haqiqah, Ar Risalah Al-Balkhiyyah and Tafsir Al-Nizomi.[53]

Due to his popularity in the field of knowledge and spirituality, those who are jealous of him started to harbor malice for him. They continuously reported false complaints against him until eventually Sultan Akbar exiled him out of India. He then settled in Balkh where he was honoured by the scholars and elders. In the beginning, the ruler of Balkh also intended to chase him out. However, he had a dream of meeting Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam and Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam prevented him from doing so. Then that ruler of Balkh became his permanent follower and used to visit him every week.

He passed away in Balkh. Amongst his khalifaah were his two sons: Abdul Karim and Sayyid Ali Gawwas. They settled in Balkh while Sheikh Abu Sa’id Gangohi became his representative in India.[54] 

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29.Abu Sa’id al Gangohi rah.a

( ... – 1049 hijrah)

Abu Sa’id bin Nuruddin bin Abdul Quddus is a grandson of Abdul Quddus Gangohi rahmatullah ‘alayh. His mother is the daughter of Sheikh Jalaluddin al Umari al Thanesri rahmatullah ‘alayh. He was born and raised up in Ganggoh.[55] He intended to take bai’ah from his grandfather but due to his old age, Sheikh Jalaluddin handed over his tarbiah to Nizamuddin Balkhi rahmatullah ‘alayh. When the latter had to leave Hindustan and move to Balkh, Abu Said was very sad to the extent that he abandoned his spiritual rituals.

One day when he visited the grave of his grandfather, Abdul Quddus rahmatullah ‘alayh, he felt like he was called to visit his teacher in Balkh. This feeling lasted for three days. At last, he began his journey towards Balkh.

Nizamuddin Balkhi rahmatullah ‘alayh expected his arrival at Balkh through kashf where he saw Abdul Quddus Gangohi rahmatullah ‘alayh ordered that his grandson be treated as a visitor for three days. Therefore, Nizamuddin Balkhi along with the ruler of Balkh welcomed and treated Abu Sa’id with due respect. [56]

After going through a process of heavy tarbiah and mujaahadah from Nizamuddin Balkhi rahmatullah ‘alayh, Abu Sa’id Gangohi was appointed as khalifaah and was sent back to Ganggoh to continue the mission of tarbiah there. He breathed his last in Ganggoh.

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Enthusiasm of Abu Sa’id Gangohi rahmatullah ‘alayh

After a few days of grand welcoming, Abu Sa’id Ganghoh rahmatullah ‘alayh said to his teacher “My teacher, I came walking on my feet from Ganggoh to Balkh not with a purpose to be honored with feast.” The teacher enquired, “Oh my son, what is your real purpose?” He said, “I come to acquire the treasure that you have gained from my family.”

Hearing this, Sheikh Nizamuddin’s face suddenly changed and said, “If you want that treasure then bid farewell to all this pomp and splendor. From today the service of attending to the toilets is assigned to you.” The Shaikh instructed the manager in charge of the general mess to give Shah Abu Saeed some bread morning and evening. He further ordered Abu Saeed not to appear in his presence without permission. Neither did he prescribe any zikr or spiritual exercise for him either. He only had to pray, fast and tend to the bathing facilities (of the khanqah).

One day, the Shaikh told the cleaner to dump a basket of dirt onto Abu Saeed. The cleaner did as instructed. In anger, Abu Saeed blurted out “If you were today in Gangoh, you would have seen the consequences.” The cleaner reported to the Shaikh who commented: “Oh! The devil is still in his head. The odour of Gangoh’s kingdom has not left yet. He still has to attend to the toilets.” After some time, the Shaikh instructed the cleaner to repeat the performance. On this occasion, Shah Abu Saeed said nothing, but glared in anger at the cleaner. When the Shaikh was informed, he said: “There is still deficiency in him.” This service continued for some more time. The cleaner was again instructed to dump the dirt on Abu Saeed. On this occasion, his nafs was completely docile and submissive. He gathered the dirt on the ground and spread it onto himself. When the Shaikh was informed, he commented, “Alhamdulillah! The first stage has been traversed.” Truly, pride constitutes the main barrier in the path. If it is eliminated, the path will be crossed swiftly. After that, Abu Sa’id rahmatullah ‘alayh was permitted to attend the gathering of his teacher and then was instructed with certain zikir. The zikr resulted in some spiritual states and the sheikh discerned some ujub (vanity) in Abu Saeed. Thus, the sheikh commanded to stop the practice and imposed on him the duty of tending to the hunting dogs.

One day while leading those dogs in to the jungle, the dogs began to chase an animal. Abu Sa’id too had to run holding the chains of those dogs. Finally, he lost control of two dogs. He immediately tied the other chains on his waist to avoid the displeasure of his sheikh. At the end, he fell and was dragged by the dogs and wounded by the thorns and rocks. However, a special state manifested on him and the pleasure of it made him forget all hardship. After that, the sheikh said to his servants “Allah has honored Abu Sa’eed with a special tajalli. Go to the forest and bring him.” Then the sheikh had a vision of Sheikh Abdul Quddus who said to him “Nizamud Deen! Although you are entitled to impose on him even more hardships, I did not extract so much hardship from you.” This had a profound effect on Nizamud Deen’s heart. When Shah Abu Saeed now appeared, the shiekh embraced him and began to treat him with much honour and concern. 

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30.Khwajah Muhibullah al I’laahabaadi rah.a

( ... – 1058 hijrah)

Muhibbullah Ilaahabaadi rahmatullah ‘alayh was from Sadarpur. After completing his study and serving the government, he was overwhelmed with divine attraction thus isolating himself with abstinence and worship and moved to Gangoh. He joined the silsilah of Chishtiyyah Sabiriyyah by giving his bay’ah of allegiance to Sheikh Abu Sai’d and accompanied him for quite some time till he reached the level of the elders.[57]

Muhibbullah rahmatullah ‘alayh was among the great khalifahs of Sheikh Abu Sai’d Gangohi rahmatullah ‘alayh who had appointed him as khalifaah just a few days after taking his bai’ah. Seeing this, some students who have accompanied Sheikh Gangohi rahmatullah ‘alayh for a long period of time felt uneasy for not being treated the same as Muhibbullah rahmatullah ‘alayh. When he was asked regarding this matter, Sheikh Gangohi rahmatullah ‘alayh said, “This is a gift from Allah ta’ala. He gives it to whom He wills.” Sheikh Gangohi rahmatullah ‘alayh explained that each person is not the same. Some are in need of more mujaahadah and hardship while there are others who need only little sacrifice to receive the spiritual gift.[58]

He later went back to his homeland in Sadarpur. He then settled in Ilaahabaad where his barakaah spread out and many scholars joined his silsilah. He passed away in Ilaahabaad.[59] 

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31.Sheikh Muhammadi bin Isa al Hargaami rah.a

(14 Shawal 1021 – 3 Rejab 1107)

Muhammadi bin Isa al Hargami is a descendant of Muhammad bin Ali bin Abdillah bin Ja’far bin Abi Talib. After a considerable advice from his father, he delved in external knowledge. Then he developed the desire to seek internal knowledge. In this regard he came to Sheikh Muhibbullah rahmatullah ‘alayh and served him for fourteen years. Throughout this time, he only visited his father once in Hargaam. After departing from Ilahabad, he stayed for some time in Amrohah on the request and insistence of its people. He then settled down in Akbar Abad upon the command of his teacher. He wrote a commentary on At Taswiah, a book written by his teacher, Sheikh Muhibbullah rahmatullah ‘alayh.

Usually men of excellence will be targets of envious persons. These type of people fabricated lies regarding Shaikh Sayyid Muhammadi and lodged complaints about him to the king, Alamgir (Auranzeb) who ordered the sheikh to go to Makkah and Madinah. Thus, in the year 1090, he journeyed to the Haramain. After a stay of five years, he returned in 1095 Hijri. His wife had accompanied him on this journey and Sa’ad Muhammad Makki and Roshen Muhammad Madani were born during this period. When he returned, his enemies continued to conspire against him and even fabricated charges of treason against him. At last, Alamgir imprisoned him in Aurangabad. He passed away in prison and was buried in Akabar Abad (Agra).

Amongst his khalifahs are the two sons and his brother, Muhammad Hamid bin Isa Hargaami.[60] 

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Muhammad Makki rah.a

Nukhbatul Tawaarikh Amrohi reported that Muhammadi al Hargaami and Muhammad Hamid are two brothers. The latter had acquired khilafat from his brother, Muhammadi whose two sons were born in Haramain Shareefain. The one is Muhammad Makki and the other is Roshan Muhammad Madani. Both also had acquired khilaafat from their father.

Muhammad Makki bin Muhammadi al Hargaami, was born in Makkah. Some shajarat (papers listing the Spiritual Tree) has his name recorded between his father, Sheikh Muhammadi and his cousin, Sheikh Adh’duddin Muhammad bin al Hamid al Amrohwi.

However, Sheikh Adh’duddin wrote in his book Maqasidus Sadiqin that he drank directly from the spiritual cup of his uncle and sheikh, Sheikh Muhammadi. Other books of history also supported that his uncle, Sheikh Muhammadi al Hargaami himself appointed Sheikh Adh’duddin as khalifah. Hence, many records do not list Muhammad Makki in the chain.

It is possible that Shah Adh’duddin had acquired khilaafat directly from Muhammadi. However, he obtained part of his spiritual accomplishment through his paternal cousin, Muhammad Makki.[61] 

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32.Muhammad bin al Hamid al Amrohwi rah.a

(1077 – 1172 hijrah)

Nuzhatul Khawatir describes him as “A pious scholar; Muhammad bin al Hamid bin Isa az-Zainabi al Hargaami ash Sheikh ‘Adh’duddin al Amrohwi, one of the great elders of Chishtiyyah. He studied from his father and uncle, Muhammad al Fayyadh. He accompanied his teacher for a period until he succeeded him in Amrohah. He was a great scholar and a master in the field of Arabic language, a person of piety and good character who does not accept any positions and wages from governors. He spent his life in the state of poverty. He also excels in interpreting dreams. Amongst his written books are Maqasidul ‘Arifin (was completed in the year 1124 hijrah), Diwan ash Shi’r al Farisiy, and Sadd Suruur (written in Sanskrit discussing ma’rifah and rules of tariqaah).”[62]

His father, al Hamid bin Isa, was from Hargaam and migrated to Amrohah in the year 1073 hijrah, few years before Syaikh Muhammad was born.

Sheikh Adh’duddin passed away on the 27th Rajab in the year 1170 or 1172 hijri at the approximate age of 100 years. His grave is in Amrohah in close proximity to the Jaami’ Musjid.

Mashaikh-e-Chisht relates a story of a yogi who gave him an alchemy supposedly having the ability to transform iron into gold but he did not used it. When asked, he said, “There is no need for it as I have a better alchemy and that is qana’a (self contentment).[63] 

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33.Sheikh Abdul Hadi al Amrohwi as Siddiqi rah.a

(1084 – 1190 hijrah)

Nuzhatul Khawatir describes him as “A pious elder; Abdul Hadi bin Muhammad bin Abdul Sami’ al Qurashi as Siddiqi al Amrowhi, one of the elders of Chishtiyyah. He was born and nurtured in Amrohah. He acquired knowledge and ma’rifah from ‘Adh’duddin Muhammad bin al Hamid az Zainabi and accompanied him for a period of time until he succeeded his teacher. Abdul Bari bin Zuhrullah al Amrowhi and many others have derived benefits from him.” [64]

On one occasion, while massaging his teacher’s feet, Sheikh Abdul Hadi said, “Sheikh, supplicate for me that I be free from self-conceit. His syeikh said, “You want to be like us but your heart is entangled with many relationship”. He then replied, “Let me be like your dog”. His sheikh was very happy with the answer and after a few days mantled him with Khilafah.

Since he loved solitude, he spent considerable time in the wilderness. Once, in a dream, Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam instructed him to live in the city so that the community can take benefit from him. Therefore, he settled in the city of Baraah. He would also stay now and then at other places. Thus, his visits to Amrohah decreased substantially. Upon the request of Qadi Sheikhul Islam, he transferred to Khai Kherah close to Bereili. Just after that, he became sick and passed away. His grave is in the garden of Sheikh Zuhurullah as Siddiqi in Amrohah. 

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34.Sheikh Abdul Bari al Amrohwi as Siddiqi rah.a

( ... – 1226 hijrah)

Nuzhatul Khawatir records him as “A pious elder; Abdul Bari bin Zuhrullah bin Abdul Hadi as Siddiqi al Amrowhi. One of the great elders of Chishtiyyah. He was born and raised in Amrohah. He acquired knowledge from his grandfather, Sheikh Abdul Hadi and accompanied him for some time until he succeeded him. Mirza Jaanjaanaan al ‘Alawi ad Dehlawi, an acquaintance of his grandfather, brought him to Delhi and taught him adhkaar through the methods of Naqshbandi elders. He accompanied him for six months and achieved high status in that tariqah. He then returned to Amrohah and taught his students both tariqaah. However, the method of Chishtiyyah was more dominant on him. Haji Abdul Rahim and others have derived benefits from him.”[65]

Because of physical weakness, his grandfather prescribed for him much lighter spiritual exercises compared to his stronger brother. He served his grandfather since he was twelve years old. The latter would tell him to clad himself in good quality garments.  Even though his external appearance did not resemble the poor Sufis, his heart was brimmed with the love of Allah ta’ala. He perpetually fasted.

After the demise of his grandfather, he continued his grandfather’s spiritual mission and carried on spreading Deen on the silsilah of Chishtiyyah. He left one son and seven khalifaah.[66] 

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Part 5: Arriving at Deoband

 

Chishti line

Junaid Baghdadi line

8.     Hubairah

8.     Junaid Baghdadi

9.     Mimshadz ad Dinwari

9.     Abu Bakr Shibli

·          

·          

·          

·          

-      Chishti & Suhrawardi

·          

·          

·          

·          

·          

26.    Abdul Quddus Gangohi

·          

27.    Jalaluddin Faruqi Thanesri

-      Naqhsbandi & Qadiri

28.    Nizamuddin Balkhi Thanesri

·          

29.    Abu Sa’id Ganghohi

·          

30.    Muhibullah I’laahabaadi

-      Sheikh Ahmad Sarhindi

31.    Muhammadi Hargaami

·          

32.    Muhammad Amrohwi

-      Shah Waliulllah ad Dehlawi

33.    Abdul Hadi Amrohwi

-      Shah Abdul Aziz ad Dehlawi

34.    Abdul Bari al Amrohwi

-      Syed Ahmad Berelwi

 

  1. Abdul Rahim Wilayati
  2. Nur Muhammad al Jhinjhaanawi
  3. Haji Imdaadullah Muhaajir Makki
  4. Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi
  5. Maulana Abrarul Haqq
  6. Maulana Hakim Muhammed Akhtar
  7. Maulana Abdul Hamid Ishaq

 

35.  Sayyid Abdur Rahim Wilaayati as Saharanpuri rah.a

( ... – 1246 hijrah)

Nuzhatul Khawatir records him as “A long lived pious elder; Abdur Rahim al Husaini al Afghaani thumma as Saharanpuri. He was of the famous elders. He acquired tariqaah Qadariyyah from Sheikh Raham Ali al Qamisi as Saadhorwi rahmatullah alaih and tariqaah Chishtiyyah from Sheikh Abdul Bari bin Zuhurullah al Amrowhi rahmatullah alaih. He travelled to Haramain and performed hajj. He then went back to India and stayed in Saharanpur for some time. When As Sayyid al Imam Ahmad bin Irfan ash Shaheed arrived in Saharanpur, he met him and pledged the bay’ah of allegiance to him. He travelled with him to the borders of India where he was martyred in the path of Allah.”[67] He died fighting against the Sikh alongside Sayyid Ahmad Berelwi and Maulana Ismail Dehlawi rahmatullah alaihim. His grave is in Panjtaar Mulk Wilayat.

Occasionally he and Sayyid Ahmad would sit in meditation and the effects of their silsilah would influence each other.

Someone asked Sheikh Abdur Rahim, “You are a man of great spiritual excellence. You are not less than Sayyid Ahmad. In fact, you surpass him. Why then are you so devoted to him? You, yourself have become his disciple and you enjoin your disciples to become his.” He answered, “In spite of all this, we do not know how to pray and fast. With the blessings of Sayyid Ahmad, we have learnt how to pray and fast.”[68] 

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The Battle of Balakot

During the rule of Raja Ranjit Singh over Punjab, he initi­ated a spell of tyranny and oppression against the Mus­lims. He transformed the courtyard of the Shahi Masjid into a stable. His aggression did not even spare the honour of women. Eventually, news of this tyranny reached Ray Bareli, the hometown of Sayyid Ahmad Berelwi rahmatullah ‘alaih. When Sayyid Ahmad heard of this, he made an appeal to the Muslims to submit their names for jihad. He informed all his disciples that the jihad has become obliga­tory upon them. Finally in 1826, together with 750 fighters and 10,000 disciples, he set out from Ray Bareli. This force treaded its way through the mountain passes of Khaibar and finally landed in Peshawar in their very first attack. They established such a rule in certain areas which was a model of the Khilafat-e-Rashidah and endeavoured to bring about an Islamic state, with the hope of eventually bringing the entire subcontinent under Islamic rule.

On the 1st of May 1831, they landed on the mountains of Balakot and set up camp that night on the mountain. One of the local villages betrayed them to the Raja's forces, who launched an attack at night from the rear of the mountain. On the 5th of May, Sayyid Ahmad Shaheed was beheaded by the enemy in tahajjud salaah. On the same day, Shah Ismail (the grandson of Shah Waliyyullah) took command and went on fighting for the next four days until he eventually also fell to the ground with approximately 450 fighters.[69] 

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36.  Sheikh Nur Muhammad al Jhinjhaanawi rah.a

( ... – 1259 hijrah)

Nuzhatul Khawatir describes him as “Ash Sheikh al ‘Arif al Kabir, Nur Muhammad al Chishti al Jhinjhaanwi. He is of the famous elders and a descendant of the famous wali, Sheikh Abdur Razzaq. He studied the tariqah of Chishtiyyah from Sheikh Abdur Rahim al Afghaani ash Shaheed. He concealed his condition by teaching children in a village called Lohari and had not missed takbiratul ihram (with imam) for thirty years. He traveled at the borders of India with his teacher, Shiekh Abdul Rahim. He also studied from Sayyidina al Imam Ahmad bin Irfan ash Shaheed al Berelwi. He gave his allegiance to him and then returned to India upon his command. The great elder, our sheikh, Imdadullah at Thanwi al Muhajir ila Makkah and many others studied from him.”[70]

He was born in Jhinjhaana, a town around 100 kilometers north of Delhi. He drank from two spiritual springs of his time, Sayyid Ahmad Shaheed Berelwi from the Naqshbandi silsilah and Shah Abdur Rahim Wilayaati from the Chishti silsilah. The Naqshbandi silsilah is famous for its sober approach and silent meditation while the Chishtiyyah are famous for their trance of Devine Love. Through the combination of these two apparently conflicting styles, Sheikh Nur Muhammad al Jhinjhaanawi rahmatullah ‘alaih said, “I have prepared (i.e., cooked in) such a casserole which had not been prepared a hundred years ago nor will be prepared after a hundred years.”[71] 

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The approach of Shah Waliullah

The teacher of Sayyid Abdur Rahim Wilayaati as Saharanpuri, Sayyid Ahmad ash Shaheed al Berelwi, inherited the tariqaah of Naqshbandi and Qadiri from Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlawi while the latter studied under his father, Shah Waliyullah ad Dehlawi. The inclination of Shah Waliyullah in the field of hadith have much influenced on the Chishti silsilah that reached the Deobandi elders.

Because of high emphasize on the study of hadith, the scholars of Deoband in general paid special attention to the practicing of Sunnah and were very careful with regard to innovations that divert the attention of tasawwuf practitioners from the goal of tasawwuf itself. Meanwhile, unlike their Ahle Hadith counterpart, they abide closely to the teachings of the four madzahib, in particular the madhhab of Imam Abu Hanifah rahmatullah ‘alaih.

They vehemently refute any acts of tariqah that goes against the aqeedah of the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah and does not correspond to any of the four madhhab. If there was a conflict of approach, they will never compromise shariah if favour of sufi practices. Tariqaah is a means to uphold the Law of Allah ta’ala; it is not to erode or discount any part of it. There are still many Chishti practitioners in India not affected by the splash of the Dehlawi rain. They have a very different approach from that of the Deobandi scholars. 

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Silsilah Qadiri and Naqshbandi through Waliullah

  1. Junaid Baghdadi
  2. Abu Bakr Shibli

10.   Abdul Wahid Tamimi

10.   Abul Qasim Nasr Abadi

11.   Abul Farh Tartusi

11.   Abu Ali Hasan ad Daqqaq

12.   Abul Hasan Ali Ankari

12.   Abul Qasim al Qushairi

13.   Abu Sa’id Makhzumi

13.   Abu Ali Farmidi

14.   Sayyid Abdul Qadir Jailani

14.   Yusuf Hamdani

15.   Sayyid Abdul Razzaq

15.   Abdul Khailq Gujadwani

16.   Sayyid Zainuddin

16.   Muhammed Aarif Riogri

17.   Sayyid Yahya Zahid

17.   MahmudAbkhair Faghnawi

18.   Sayyid Abdul Wahhab

18.   Azizaan Ali Raamitni

19.   Sayyid Abdul Qadir

19.   Muhammad Baba Samaasi

20.   Sayyid Ahmad Qudsi

20.   Sayyid Amir Kalaal Sukhari

21.   Sayyid Muhammad Maghribi

21.   Bahauddin Naqshabandi

22.   Sayyid Abdul Haq

22.   ‘Alauddin Attar

23.   Sayyid Ilyas Maghribi

23.   Sayyid Sharif Ali Jurjani

24.   Sayyid Qamisul A’zam

24.   Ya’qub Charkhi

25.   Sayyid Muhammad Shah

25.   Khwajah Ubaidullah Ahraar

26.   Sayyid Abu Muhammad

26.   Muhammad Zahid

27.   Sayyid Muhammad Ghauth

27.   Durwesh Muhammad

28.   Sayyid M. Abdul Hayy

28.   Khwajgi Umkangi

29.   Sheikh Ahmad Sarhindi

29.   Muhammad Baqi billah

30.   Sayyid Adam Binuri

30.   Sheikh Ahmad Sarhindi

31.   Sayyid Abdullah AkbarAbadi

31.   Sayyid Adam Binuri

32.   Shah Abdul Rahim Dehlawi

32.   Sayyid Abdullah AkbarAbadi

33.   Shah Waliyullah ad Dehlawi

33.   Shah Abdul Rahim Dehlawi

 

34.   Shah Waliyullah ad Dehlawi

 

37.  Haji Imdaadullah Muhaajir Makki rah.a

( …... - 12 Jumadal Ukhra 1327 hijrah /18 Oktober 1899)

Like his teacher, Haji Imdaadullah was fortunate to undergo training in both Chishti and Naqshbandi orders. At the age of eighteen, he pledged his allegiance to Maulana Nasiruddin rahimahullah and the latter appointed him as khalifaah in Naqshbandi tariqah. After some time, he had a dream that Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam took his hand and put it on the hand of Mianje Sayyid Muhammad Nur Jhinjhaanawi rahmatullah alaih. After a couple of years, he went to meet Sayyid Jhinjhaanawi rahmatullah alaih and pledged allegiance to him. Sayyid Jhinjhaanawi rahmatullah alaih also appointed him as khalifaah in the Chisht tariqah. Sayyid Jhinjhanawi rahmatullah alaih once tested him saying, “Do you want alchemy (ability to transform stones into gold) or tashkir (ability to control someone else’s mind)?” Hearing this, he cried and said, “I only want the love of Allah ta’ala.”[72]

In May 1857, along with his two devoted students, Maulana Qasim Nanotwi and Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, he led the Muslim army against British in Shamli. However, they were not able to overpower the colonials. Haji Imadadullah had to migrate to Makkah and lived there until the last moment of his life as the British started to hunt down Muslims who took part in the jihad.

Aside from Maulana Qasim Nanotwi and Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, he also left a very famous khalifah in India, Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi rahmatullah alaih. 

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The establishment of Darul Ulum Deoband[73]

In 1601, an East India company trade delegation under the leadership of Vasco da Gama anchored at Bombay Harbour. By 1701, a hundred years later, a number of territories were already under British rule. Shah Waliyyullah was born in 1702. By 1740, Shah Waliyyullah rahmatullah ‘alaih realized that the British had already seized control from all four sides and their efforts to wipe out Islam. In an effort to rekindle the iman of the Muslims, he translated the Qur'aan into Persian and stressed on the importance of the study of Hadith. For the rest of his life, Shah Waliyyullah continued to spread the knowledge of Qur’aan and Hadith due to which thousands had benefitted and the knowledge of Qur’aan and Hadith became alive once again all over India.

His chalked out a plan of complete revolution in India. In 1762, after the demise of Shah Waliyyullah, Shah Abdul Aziz succeeded his father and, along with his brothers and family, promoted his father’s mission for the remaining portion of his life. He planted the seeds of antago­nism against the British passed a fatwa on the validity of jihad against the British and their supporters in India. Due to the fatwa, Fatah Ali Sultan Tippu, accompanied by his army, eventually fought four battles in Mysore. Sultan Tippu himself engaged in physi­cal combat against the enemy and was martyred in 1792 while fighting alone right up to the very end. He was martyred at the fort of Mysore whilst his Shi’ite chief general, Mir Saadiq betrayed him for 22,000 acres of land by the British.

In 1856, a meeting was called up in Delhi. It was attended, amongst others, by Moulana Jaʿfar Thaneseri, Moulana Wilaayat Ali, Haji Imdaadullah, Moulana Qasim Nanotwi, Moulana Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi and Hafiz Dhaamin (Shaheed). In the meeting, Moulana Qasim Nanotwi said, "Aren't you aware that the British are sitting right on our heads? They have laid a snare of their rule throughout the country. Be prepared for some rather decisive battles against them. We will either be cut up into pieces or fight against them right up to the end. We will not allow the British to live in this country." As Moulana Qasim Nanotwi mentioned this, a person stood up and remarked, “We are few in number and our resources are very limited.” Moulana replied, “Is our number less than the number of the Mujaahideen of Badr?” These words rekindled the spirit of Jihad in their hearts. As a result, ‘The Battle of Independence’ in 1857 was fought on two fronts, one in Ambala under the leadership of Maulana Jaʿfar Thaneseri and the other in Shamli under Haji Imdaadullah. However, for reasons known best to Allah ta’ala, political victory was not destined.

After the battle of 1857, one of the leading politicians of India, Sir William Muir submitted a report to the British viceroy to India on how they can firmly secure the British government’s hold over India in the post-war period. He wrote, “Of the entire population of India, the Muslims are the most spirited and vigilant. The battle of independence was fought mainly by the Muslims. As long as the Muslims cherish the spirit of jihad, we will not be able to impose our rule upon them. Hence, first and foremost, the snuffing out of this spirit is imperative. The only way this can be achieved is by weeding out the Ulama and by eradicating the Qur’an.”

Acting on this advice, in 1861, the government launched a campaign against the Qur’aan. 300,000 copies of the Noble Qur’aan were set alight by the government. Thereafter, they made a resolution to eradicate the Ulama. The British hanged 14,000 Ulama to death. From Chandi Chowk of Delhi up to Khaibar, not a single tree was spared the neck of the Ulama. The Ulama were wrapped in pig-skin and hurled alive into blazing furnaces. Their bodies were branded with hot copper rods. They used to be made to stand on the backs of elephants and tied to high trees. The elephants would then be driven away and they would be left hanging by their necks.

The educational institutions in India had all closed down after the establishment of British rule. This was mainly because they were run with grants from the Mogul court and from Muslim nobles. They also received financial aid from waqf - charitable trusts that had all stopped functioning or had been confiscated by the government after the establishment of British rule in India. The British author, W. W. Hunter, has pointed out how the British had deprived the indigenous educational institutions of financial aid, “Most of the families of the nobles in Bengal used to bear the entire expenses of the madrasahs where their own children received education along with the children of their poor neighbours. Such family educational institutions, however, dwindled and their influence diminished as the noble families that had sustained them fell victim to economic depression and poverty.” (W.W. Hunter, ―The Indian Musalmans)

In 1601, when the British arrived in India for trade, there were a thousand Islamic institutes in Delhi alone. By 1867 not a single Islamic institute remained. It was around this time when Moulana Qasim Nanotwi saw Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam in a dream, in which he was instructed to build a madrasah in the village of Deoband. In compliance to the command, Moulana Nanotwi established the madrasah under a pomegranate tree on the 15th Muharram 1283 hijri (30th May 1866) in the courtyard of the Chattah Masjid. When Moulana Qasim Nanotwi informed his Shaikh, Haji Imdaadullah, who had by that time already migrated to Makkah Mukarramah, that they had just started a madrasah, Haji Imdaadullah rahmatullah ‘alaih remarked in surprise, "What! Have 'you' founded the madrasah? No, this is actually the result of countless nights which we had passed crying before Allah ta’ala to protect Deen and Islamic knowledge.”

The first teacher appointed was Mulla Mahmud and the first student also pos­sessed the name Mahmudul Hasan, who was later given the title, 'Shaykhul Hind', which he thoroughly deserved after his innumerable sacrifices and services to Islam. It was primarily through his efforts and that of his students that India finally received its independence.

The Darul-Ulum Deoband, founded by Moulana Muhammad Qasim Nanotwi, had brought massive social, religious, educational and political reform in the lives of millions of the Muslims in the Indian subcontinent. This reform movement revived within Muslims their religious identity and kept them firm upon practical traditional Islam. 

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38.  Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi rah.a

 ( … - 1362 hijrah)

The effect of tajdid (renewal) brought by Shah Waliullah ad Dehlawi rahmatullah ‘alaih was evident in the approach of Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi rahmatullah ‘alaih. He carefully arranged and thoroughly sifted away any Sufi practices, rituals and customs that are not in conformity with Shariah so that tasawwuf does not slip from its objective. He inherited this tendancy of the Dehlawi renewal from his teacher Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi rahmatullah ‘alaih who was a central figure in the field of Hadith.

Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi rahmatullah ‘alaih paid great importance to his spritual needs even during his student days. He wanted to pledge bai’ah to his teacher, Maulana Rashid Gangohi rahmatullah ‘alaih for this purpose. However, his teacher advised him to first complete his academic endeavor. Due to his spiritual restlessness, he wrote to his teacher’s sheikh in Makkah, Haji Imdaadullah, asking him to persuade his teacher in accepting his bai’ah. He sent the letter through Maulana Rashid himself when he left for hajj. Haji Imdaadullah replied to his letter saying, “Do not worry. I my self will guide you. Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi rahmatullah alaih was overjoyed upon receiving the news. Maulana Rashid rahmatullah alaih told him, “You are enjoying the fruits of Haji Imdaadullah when it has ripen while we ate it when they were still unripe.”

Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi rahmatullah ‘alaih passed away on 2nd Rajab 1362 hijri (4th of July 1943) and his grave is in his hometown Thana Bawan, UP, India. 

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39.  Maulana Abrarul Haqq rah.a

 ( ... – 1426 hijrah)

Maulana Shah Abrar-ul-Haq rahmatullah ‘alaih lived in Hardoi, U.P. India. His father, Maulana Mahmud-ul-Haq Haqqi rahmatullah ‘alaih, was a khalifah of Maulana Thanwi rahmatullah ‘alaih. Their lineage went up to Shaikh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dehlawi rahmatullah ‘alaih. His initial education of Arabic, Urdu, and Farsi started at home. Afterwards he enrolled at Mazaahir-ul-Uloom in Saharanpur, and completed the Alim course. During the course of his studies, his piety was such that it had an effect on his classmates and drew the attention of his teachers. He was also very fortunate to have the opportunity to travel to Thana Bhawan from Saharanpur every week. Especially during the holidays, he would stay in the service of his spiritual mentor. Maulana Thanwi rahmatullah ‘alaih paid special attention to him and appointed him as khalifah at a very young age. Maulana Thanwi rahmatullah ‘alaih ordered him to go to Hardoi to kindle the fire of the knowledge of Deen. He founded a Madrasah there by the name of Ashraf-ul-Madaris. Besides the local students, there were students from Mumbai, Gujarat, Hyderabad, and other various places.[74]

He laid much emphasize on reciting the Qur’an with tajweed. For him, Qur’an should be covered in a special cloth and the rehal is a special desk for Qur’an; it must not be used for any other books. Maulana Shah Abrarul Haq rahmatullah ‘alaih was the last khalifah of Maulana Thanwi rahmatullah ‘alaih to pass away. He passed onto the mercy of Allah on 9th Rabiul Akhir 1426 (May 17, 2005). 

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Bai’ah (Pledge of allegiance)

Bai’ah, or the pledge of allegiance, is a sunnah of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam. The Sahabaah radhiyallahu ‘anhum also used to pledge their loyalty to Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam. Amongst the famous bai’ah was Bai’atul ‘Aqabah where the Sahabaah promised to assist Nabi sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam in religious matters.

The Chishtiyyah use the mechanism of bai’ah for training purposes. It formally informs the sheikh that the disciple is ready to follow his spiritual instruction allowing the sheikh to prescribe remedy without any hesitation. The sheikh constantly reminds his disciples that the bai’ah itself is only a means, not purpose; the objective is self-reformation.

The procedure of bai’ah starts by the sheikh holding the disciple’s hand. After praising Allah ta’ala, reciting salawaat, and reciting verses of the Qur’an and hadith pertaining to it, the student expresses his repentance and intention to obey the commands of Allah ta’ala. Then he formally informs that he will walk on the path of the elders of the silsilah. The bai’ah concludes with a dua.

Although the Sufi elders of Deoband are traditionally Chishtis, they are generally awarded with the ijazah of the other three silsilah commonly practised in other reigions i.e. Qadiriyyah, Suhrawardiyyah, and Naqshbandiyyah. As demonstrated before, they acquired these silsilah through Sheikh Abdul Quddus Gangohi, Shah Waliyullah and Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi rahmatullah ‘alaihim. 

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40.  Maulana Hakim Muhammed Akhtar rah.a 

 ( ... - 1434 hijrah)

Maulana Hakeem Muhammad Akhtaar rahmatullah ‘alaih is wellknown amongst the Deobandi scholars. He spent seventeen years of his life serving his teacher, Maulana Abdul Ghani Phulpuri rahmatullah ‘alaih who was one of the beloved students of Maulana Thanwi rahmatullah ‘alaih. After the formation of Pakistan, he and his teacher moved to Karachi in 1960 C.E. After the death of Maulana Abdul Ghani rahmatullah ‘alaih, he took bai’ah to the last khalifaah of Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi, Maulana Abraarul Haq rahmatullah ‘alaih of Hardoi, India. Maulana Abraarul Haq was very pleased with his achievements and he entitled him ‘Arif Billah. Under the instruction of his teacher, he established Khanqaah Imdaadiah Ashraafiah in Gulshan-e-Iqbal in Karachi.

He always explained the dangers of sins, especially sins related to eyes. Along with warning the people of the dangers of sins, he also emphasized on the practises that lead to the love of Allah ta’ala and the importance of practicing on Sunnah. His Urdu poetry in Faizaan-e-Mahabbat (The Abundance of Love) and Aayina-e-Mahabbat (The Mirror of Love) depict his intense love for Allah ta’ala. His approach towards nurturing is that through the love of Allah ta’ala, leaving out sins becomes much easier. After taking bai’ah, the adhkaar he usually prescribed was the recital of one juz of Qur’an and a hundred times each of “Laa Ilaaha Illallah”, “Allah”, salawaat, and istighfaar. He stressed a lot on the Sunnah of keeping the beard and keeping the trouser above the ankle. He passed away on Monday, 23 of Rajaab 1434 (June 2, 2013). 

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Sama’ (Listening to poetry)

Poetry, particularly when read with melodious voice, attracts the attention of its listeners. It is for this reason that many elders of the Chishti silsilah have used it as a means of moulding the mind of the murids. However, this approach is risky that some has termed it a slippery stone as one can easily slip away from his objective if not careful. It has to be handled with care under the supervision of an accomplished sheikh as people has the tendency to forget their real objective and make singing the main objective of tasawwuf. Imam Ghazaali rahmatullah ‘alaih has extensively discussed the conditions of reciting poetry to keep samaa’ at the level of means rather than goal. One of the conditions is to consider zamaan, makaan and ikhwaan (time, venue and participants).

Refering to the condition of his time, Maulana Zakariyya rahmatullah ‘alaih said, “Now consider to what extent is this condition adhered to in our times? In most cases samaa’ is held nowadays at the times of prayer, leading to its neglect. Missing jamaat and the approach of the expiry of the prayer time are even considered unimportant. Furthermore no grief is felt when Jamaat and prayer are missed for the sake of samaa’. They do not give the importance to Sunnats and Faraa-idh as they gave to samaa’. Infact, some say that samaa’ is the actual and true ibaadat, even superior to prayer, may Allah protect! In most cases samaa’ takes place at such venues where all and sundry attend. Even immoral and corrupt persons gather to see the comedy performed. No arrangement made at all for privacy.”[75] 

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41.  Maulana Abdul Hamid Ishaq - hafizahullah

 (24 Shawwal 1364 /20 September 1946 – ……………………… )

Maulana Abdul Hamid Ishaaq hafizahullah is one of the glittering gems of South Africa. His madrasah in Azadville, Johannesburg, has given birth to hundreds of scholars who are active in rendering service in various fields of da’wah and tarbiah around the globe. Despite old age, illness, and the responsibilities of the Darul-Uloom, which rest upon his shoulders, his deep-hearted passion to spread the message of the love of Allah Ta'ala has caused him to travel the length and breadth of his country as well as many countries of the world.[76]

From their conversations, one can sense the intense love he had for his sheikh, Maulana Akhtaar rahmatullah ‘alaih. Recital of his sheikh’s poetry adorns the spiritual gathering held at his khanqah in Azaadville. Elderly disciples with melodious voice beautifully present the poetry of Divine Love without the need of any musical instruments. Hazrat then personally translates the saying of his sheikh and elaborates the hidden lessons of the poetry. The gathering is sober and full of awe and respect. Khanqaah Akhtaari programs of Azadville emphasize the practice of Sunnah and the five branches of shariah. Normally pious ulama’ conduct all the programs. In the month or Ramadhaan, the mureedeen (disciples) who come for the purpose of suluk fill all three floors of the masjid. This lively program starts ten days before Ramadhaan until the completion of chillah, a period of forty days normally observed by the Chisti elders. May Allah ta’ala keep this gem glowing and spread its blessings to every corner of the world, Amin. 

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Walhamdulillahi bi ni’matihi tatimmus solihat

Wa sallallahu ‘ala habibihi wa alihi wa sahbihi ajma’in.

 

 

 

Works Cited

Ad-Dimasyqi, Imam Ibnu Asakir Ali Bin Abi Muhammad. Tarikh Madinatu Dimasyq. Dar El-Fikr, 2000.

A-Isbahani, Imam Abi Nu'aim. Hilyatul Auliya'. Dar El-Hadith , 2009.

Al-Lucknowy, Abdul Hayy Bin Fakhruddin Al-Hasani ...-1341 hijri. Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir. Dar Ibnu Hazm, 1st Edition 1420 Hijri _ 1999.

As-Sya'rani, Imam Abdul Wahhab. AT-Tabaqatul Kubra. Maktab As-Saqafah Ad-Diniyyah, 2005.

Az-Zahabi, Imam Hafiz Muhammad Bin Ahmad. Tareekhul Islam. Dar Al-Kutoob Al-Ilmiyyah, 2005.

Haitami, Ibn Hajar al. Thabat al Imam Shaikh al Islam Ibn Hajar al Haitami. Jordan: Darul Fath, 1435 h. /2014 m.

Jauzi, Imam Jamaluddin Ibnu. Sifatus Safwah. Dar Al-Kitab Al-Arabi, 2012.

Kajee, Musa and Imraan. Ulama of Deoband. Azaadville, Johannesburg, 2016.

Khan, Nabil. An Noor - website. 2007. https://annoor.wordpress.com/biography-of-hazrat-maulana-shah-abrar-ul-haq-sahib-ra/ (accessed October 12, 2017).

Khanqah Akhtari - website. 2017. http://www.ka.org.za/content/about-hazrat-maulana-shah-abdul-hamid-ishaq-sahib-daamat-barakaatuhum (accessed October 2017).

Rizvi, Sayyid Mahboob. History of the Dar al Ulum Deoband. Idara e Ihtimam, Darul Ulum, Doband, 1980.

Sheikhul Hadith, Maulana Muhammd Zakaria Al Kandhlawi. The Mashaikh of Chisht. Translated by Majlisul Ulama of South Africa, 1315-1402 hijrah.

 

 

Part One: Before Chist

-

[1] (Tareekhul Islam, 3/247)

[2] (Tareekhul Islam, 3/254)

[3] (Az-Zahabi 2005)(4/240)

[4] (Tareekhul Islam, 4/240)

[5] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 100-101)

[6] (Tareekhul Islam, 4/242)

[7] (Tarikh Madinatu Dimasyq, 48/383)

[8] (Tarikh Madinatu Dimasyq, 48/389)

[9] (Tarikh Madinatu Dimasyq, 48/391)

[10] (Tareekhul Islam, 4/338)

[11] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 109)

[12] (Hilyatul Auliya', 7/6-7)

[13] (AT-Tabaqatul Kubra, 1/114)

[14] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 118) We have not found the biography of Aminuddin Hubairah al Basri in Arabic sources.

[15] Zahabi in the biography of al Karkhi, Fatawa Fiqhiyyah Kubra lil Haitami (1/267) as quoted by Dr. Amjad Rashid in his annotation on (Thabat al Imam Shaikh al Islam Ibn Hajar al Haitami, 117)

[16] See conflict opions of Zahabi in both Siyar (7/425), (6/144) and Tarikhul Islam (4/362), (3/627). Also Ibnu Hajar in Fatawa Fiqhiyyah Kubra (1/267).

[17] (Thabat al Imam Shaikh al Islam Ibn Hajar al Haitami, 116)

[18] (Tareekhul Islam, 7/518)

[19] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 121)

[20] (Sifatus Safwah, 737)

[21] (AT-Tabaqatul Kubra, 1/185)

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Part Two: Chistiyyah in Chist (7 personalities)

-

[22] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 122)

[23] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 124)

[24] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 126-127)

[25] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 128-129)

[26] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 130-131)

[27] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 132-133)

[28] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 134-135)

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Part Three: Early Chistiyyah in India (9 personalities)

-

[29] (Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir, 1/91)

[30] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 138) 

[31] (Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir, 1/114)

[32] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 142-143)

[33] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 146)

[34] (Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir, 1/127)

[35] (Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir, 1/108)

[36] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 148)

[37] (Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir, 2/163)

[38] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 150)

[39] (Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir, 2/202)

[40] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 152)

[41] (Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir, 3/229)

[42] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 154)

[43] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 157)        

[44] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 158-159)

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Part Four: Meeting Suhrawardiyyah (9 personalities)

-

[45] (Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir, 4/371-372)

[46] Muhammad bin Qasim Uudhi has also benefited from both Chishti and Suhrawardi tariqah. He has a very beneficial book titled Adabus Salikeen. (Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir, 275)

[47] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 160)

[48] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 168)

[49] (Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir, 4/324)

[50] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 172)

[51] (Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir, 4/324)

[52] (Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir, 5/655)

[53] (Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir, 5/655-656)  

[54] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 176)       

[55] (Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir, 5/469)      

[56] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 178)

[57] (Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir, 5/609)

[58] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 182)        

[59] (Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir, 5/611)

[60] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 184) (Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir, 799-800)

[61] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 186)

[62] (Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir, 6/797)

[63] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 188)        

[64] (Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir, 6/760)

[65] (Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir, 7/998)

[66] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 192)

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Part Five: Arriving at Deoband (7 personalities)

[67] (Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir, 7/1010)

[68] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 193)

[69] (Ulama of Deoband, 11)

[70] (Nuzhatul Khawatir wa Bahjatul Masami' wan Nawathir, 7/1131)

[71] (History of the Dar al Ulum Deoband, 1/20)

[72] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 216)

[73] (Kajee, 9-18)

[74] (An Noor - website)

[75] (The Mashaikh of Chisht, 161)

[76] (Khanqah Akhtari - website)

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